Living Encyclopedia of Global African Music

Dr. Karlton E. Hester, Editor in Chief (Copyright 2002 Karlton E. Hester)
Co-Sponsored by the UCSC Center for Teaching Excellence and African American Innovators, LLC

Vols. 1 - 4 | Legend | Search Tips | Events | News | Users
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Volume 1 | Volume 2 | Volume 3 | Volume 4

Volume 1: The Afrocentric Roots of "Jazz" and African Music in the Americas

  • The Afrocentric Origins of "Jazz"
  • Eurocentric Documentation and Control of African-American Music
  • The Impact of Sexism and Racism
  • Summary

I. Traditional African Music

II. The Sociocultural Context In Which African-American Music Emerged 

  • The Natives Of America
  • Africans' Limited Access To Musical Instruments and Performance Venues In America 
  • Slave Era Music And Cultural Cross-Fertilization 
  • African-American Music Convergence Affected By Sex And Marriage 
  • Sociocultural Influences On Seventeenth Century African-American Music 
  • Eighteenth-Century Sociocultural Changes 
  • Witch Craze


III. Traditional African-American Music

  • Music Evolves During The Struggle For Independence And Equal Rights
  • American Folksongs And The Blues: Pre-Civil War 

  • Juba 
    The Cakewalk And Children’s Game Songs 
  • American Folksongs And The Blues: Post-Civil War 
  • Marches 
  • Minstrel Shows
  • The Dawn Of Ragtime 
  • The Term "Jazz"
  • Musical Influence On Religion, Racism, And Revolution 

  • Voodoo 
  • Jim Crow Segregation Perpetuates Segregated Musical Styles 
  • Summary


IV. Innovators Emerging Between 1900 And 1910

  • Ecumenical Music Retention 
  • The Continuation of Double Entendre And Other Modes of Communication 
  • Afrocentric Dance and Musical Cross-Fertilization 
  • Early Blues 

  • Gertrude "Ma" Rainey—"Mother Of The Blues"
    William Christopher Handy—"Father Of The Blues"
  • From Vaudeville To Ragtime 

  • Scott Joplin 
    James Scott 
    Thomas Million Turpin
    James Reese Europe
  • New Orleans - Dixieland "Jazz" ("Traditional Jazz") 

  • "Buddy" Bolden 
    William Gary "Bunk" Johnson 
    "Jelly Roll" Morton 
    "Papa" Celestin, "King" Oliver, And Freddie Keppard 
    Other New Orleans Instrumentalists 
  • Turn-of-the-Century Women Musicians 
  • New York - Tin Pan Alley 
  • African Musical Influences In The Americas
    The Evolution of The Drum Set 
    The Double Bass Evolution

Volume 1 | Volume 2 | Volume 3 | Volume 4

Volume 2: The Evolution of Classic "Jazz" Forms

V.  Innovators Emerging Between 1910 and 1920

  • The Blues Continue to Evolve 

  • Two Influential Rural Blues Musicians 
    Classic Blues 
    Bessie Smith 
  • Ida Cox and Migrations to Northern Cities 

  • Mamie Smith
    Other Women Instrumentalists 
  • Sidney Bechet and the Early Transition from Clarinet to Saxophone 
  • Evolution of the Early Piano 
  • Politics and the Twentieth-Century African-American Church on the Eve of the Harlem Renaissance


VI.  Innovators Emerging Between 1920 and 1930

  • Snapshots of American Society 
  • The Effects of Changing American Demographics on Music
  • New Orleans and the Movement East 
  • Swing and Its Precursors 

  • Fats Waller 
    New York During the Harlem Renaissance 
  • Chicago Dixieland 
  • The Jelly Roll Morton Documentary 
  • Louis "Satchmo" Armstrong and His Associates 

  • Joe "King" Oliver
    Lil Hardin Armstrong 
    Bix Beiderbecke
  • Big Bands and the Approaching Swing Era 

  • African-American "Jazz" Bands 
    Commercial and Middle-of-the-Road Bands 
    Big Bands Swing 
  • The Media Continues to Burgeon


VII.  Innovators Emerging Between 1930 and 1940

  • The New "Swing" Bands 
  • Women's Bands during the Early Twentieth Century 

  • Ina Ray Hutton and Her Melodears 
    International Sweethearts of Rhythm 
    Other Women's Bands 
  • Emma Barett 
  • Other Women Artists 
  • Toward Greater Individual Expression 

  • Art Tatum 
    Mary Lou Williams
  • The "Age of the Sax Masters" Coleman Hawkins and Lester Young 

  • Coleman Hawkins
    Lester Young
  • The Voice Continues to Be a Strong Influence 

  • Billie Holiday
    Ella Fitzgerald
  • Ellington's Afrocentricity and the European "Mirage" 
  • The European Image of "Jazz" 

  • European "Mirage" and "Jazz" Politics 
  • Benny Goodman 
  • Other African-American Dance Bands 
  • A Glance at the Development of the Guitar in Early "Jazz"


VIII.  Innovators Emerging Between 1930 and 1940

  • Basic Blues and Early Precursors of Modern "Jazz" 
  • Bebop Ties to Past and Present Cultures 
  • Bebop Begins to Evolve 

  • Progenitors of the Bebop Revolution 
    Charlie "Bird" Parker and "Black" Music Downtown 
  • Misfortune, Drugs & Alcohol Imposes Upon The Bop Scene 
  • Bop Brass Instrumentalists 

  • Dizzy Gillespie 
    Melba Doretta Liston 
    Howard McGhee and Others
  • Bebop Pianists 

  • Earl Powell
    Thelonious Monk 
    Women Bop Pianists 
    Other Bop Era Pianists 
  • Women Vocalists and Instrumentalists During the 1940s 

  • Sarah Vaughan
    Carmen McRae
    Pauline Braddy (Williams) 
    Mary Osborne 
  • "Progressive Jazz" 
  • Summary


Volume 1 | Volume 2 | Volume 3 | Volume 4

Volume 3: The Creation of Free, Fusion and Reconstructive Modern Styles

IX.  Innovators Emerging Between 1950 and 1960

X.  Innovators Emerging Between 1960 and 1970

  • Evolution of Innovative Music for 1960s Audiences
  • Restructuring Musical Approaches 
  • Artistic Expression or Entertainment? 
  • Betty Carter 
  • Alice Coltrane
  • Eric Dolphy and the "Jazz" Critics 
  • Albert Ayler 
  • The Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians 
  • The Emergence of the Art Ensemble of Chicago 
  • Dewey Redman, Art Davis, and the New York Scene 
  • Amina Claudine Myers 
  • Pharaoh Sanders 
  • Archie Shepp 
  • Joanne Brackeen 
  • Charles Tolliver 
  • Toshiko Akiyoshi 
  • "Traditional Jazz" Continues 
  • 1960s Music Outside African-American Culture 
  • Summary: The American Society That 1960s Music Reflected

XI. Innovators Emerging Between 1970 and 1980

  • Changes around the World
  • Spiritual "Jazz" and New Musical Settings
  • Changing Attitudes in Europe
  • Connecting Fusion, Miles Davis, and Jimi Hendrix
    Jazz-Funk Fusion
    Jazz-Rock Fusion
    Donald Byrd
  • The Crossroads of Stylistic Evolution
  • More Conceptual Expansion
    Charles Mingus Reemerges during the 1970s
    Anthony Braxton
    The World Saxophone Quartet
    Joe Henderson
    McCoy Tyner
  • Instrumental Style Continues to Evolve
    The Evolution of the Flute
    Other Instrumental Evolutions
    Classical-Jazz Fusion and Other New Approaches
    Santeria and Musical Freedom
  • A Historical Summary

XII.  Innovators Emerging Between 1980 and 2000

Volume 4: An Encyclopedia of Music, Musicians and Recordings

A. Appendices 1-12

  • Appendix 1
    Nubian Chronology
    Chronology of Egyption Civilization
    Notes to Remember (African Musical Elements)
    Suggested Listening (African Music)
  • Appendix 2
    Simple Definitions (Chapter 2)
  • Appendix 3
    Short Definitions (Chapter 3)
    Statistics Compiled for Free "Negro" Men from Two Communities in the Antebellum South
  • Appendix 4
    Terms and Concepts (Chapter 4)
  • Appendix 5
    The Symbols of Music
    Musical Instruments
    Terms and Concepts (Chapter 5)
    Additional Notes and Definitions
  • Appendix 6
    Oppression and Violence Continues in America
    The Film Industry Emerges to Rival Music
  • Appendix 7
    World News during the 1930s
    Some Important Early Swing Band Performers
    Women Swing Bands and Instrumentalists
  • Appendix 8
  • Appendix 9
  • Appendix 10
  • Appendix 11
  • Appendix 12

B. Resources

Browse Full Article Index

Legend for Index Entries:

[!] = Oral History/Interview
[a] = Article
[#] = Book Excerpt: From Africa to Afrocentric Innovations Some Call "Jazz"
[P] = Presentation/Display
[w] = Website Link
[@] = E-Mail/Chatroom News
[*] = Image(s)
[o] = Other

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