other: Class Materials
Practice Midterm 1-
Dr. Karlton E.
The sample practice midterm below for History of "Jazz" does not necessarily
reflect the exact questions that will be asked on an exam for Music 80E or other
courses using this website, nor does it necessarily reflect the format of the
questions to be given on the actual exam. Further details on the midterm exam
for Music 80E will be given in the classes preceeding the exam date.
A. Text Questions
Traditional African Music
- Elements of texture, rhythms,
melody and ________________ were preserved in both African and Afro-American
music despite efforts to destroy African culture.
- The ________________ (of Burundi),
whose lives are centered about their cattle, have songs for herding cattle
home in the evening; songs of praise of cows; songs for drawing water for
- African music is characteristically
________________ though African musicians do not actively conceptualize the
abstract principles of their music.
- A ________________ of sound is
always desirable (even on wind instruments) as is evident from the predominance
of plucked string instruments as opposed to bowed strings.
- ________________ are used both
as a melodic and an accompanying instrument. The musical bow often appears
with a resonator attached either in the middle or at the end of the bow; the
mouth is often used as a resonator as well.
- The sanza (Central Africa,
Mozambique, etc.) mbira (Southeast Africa), kembe (Central Africa),
or limba (East Central and Southeast Africa), are other variations
of ________________ found in the region.
- Vertical wooden or bamboo flutes,
whistles, mirlitons (a kazoo-like instrument), transverse trumpets and horns
of ivory (frequently with raised embouchures) and ocarinas are included in
the ________________ category of African instruments.
- The ________________ (empty water
jar) is an important percussion instrument commonly found in Ankole, Bugisu,
Sebei, and Kitosi areas; the rhythms produced are used to accompany singing
- ________________ traditionally
visit their patrons and lodge in each of their homes for a few days bringing
their entire family with them.
- The ________________ make music
on all occasions all day long. The sanza, the most common instrument,
is used to accompany dancing and singing and is played only by men. The one-stringed
fiddle, however, is played by both sexes.
Early African American Music
- The ________________ popularized
the spiritual at home and abroad during the era of Reconstruction in America.
- Patting juba or making juba was
a form of rhythmic expression involving body rhythm as a replacement for the
- Before the Civil War African American
children on plantations had many of their own ________________.
- The most preeminent European American
writer of folk songs was Stephen Collins Foster (1826-64), the son of an army
colonel. ________________ (1854-1911), the first composer in the African American
tradition to receive popular acclaim, was Foster's counterpart.
- The ________________ were most
popular during times when racial tensions were at their zenith (1850-70).
- When African American people poked
fun at European American people in minstrel shows or ________________, they
did so from the inside vantage-point stemming from having observed their subjects
in their homes, churches, and places of employment.
- ________________ is credited with
starting Vaudeville for "white" audiences in 1866 in New York City.
- Both "jig bands" and "jig piano"
were nascent forms of the ________________ that became ragtime music of the
late nineteenth and early twentieth century.
- ________________ was the most
prominent figure in the history of notated ragtime.
- During the ________________ Mardi
Gras-like celebration, slit drums, 2 string fiddles, and other varieties of
African instruments were played. Writers of the period leave no doubt that
the flavor of the festival was uniquely African.
- ________________, a Brazilian
state, has preserved more West African musical elements and traditions than
any other place in Latin America or the Caribbean. The macumban vocal style
involves the falsetto singing, polymetrical devices, responsorial technique,
and polyrhythms that are still heard in western Nigeria.
- ________________, both widely
practiced in African music, were more easily maintained within worksongs and
subsequently became the basis for African American forms and harmonic development.
- Drums were never outlawed on the
African continent or in ________________.
- ________________ functioned as
a religion for African people which enabled them to conveniently maintain
their reverence to the personal lesser gods (loa ) that surrounded
the supreme deity. Eventually these gods were identified with the saints of
the Roman Catholic Church (in veiled form).
- The mixture of women, sex, and
the devil were constantly mixed in with ________________.
- ________________ had been learned
by African slaves on board slave ships where European crew members forced
the captives to dance and exercise in order to minimize casualties.
- ________________ - several different
independent rhythms sounding at the same time.
- ________________ - in African
societies this powerful person is the music maker who serves as oral historian,
a gossip spreader, etc.
- ________________ - square in New
Orleans where Afro-Americans could sing, dance, and play percussion together.
- ________________ (1792-1844) had
been the first African American musician to win wide acclaim domestically
and in England; the first to publish sheet music; first to develop a "school"
of African American musicians; he gave the first formal band concerts; was
the first to tour the nation widely; and had been the first to produce a concert
featuring an integrated group of musicians including European American performers.
The 20th Century
- Despite the presence of some highly
influential female blues singers throughout the blues evolution, rural blues
was usually a male domain. The instrumentation of blues would continue to
evolve. After 1926, ________________ was one of the most successful blues
singers in getting his music out to the public.
- An early blues innovator, performer,
lyricist, and composer was ________________, the acknowledged "Mother of the
- After World War I ________________
were issues by major record labels to capture the African American market
by selling them recordings of "black" artists.
- Handy's first published piece,
________________ influenced the popularity of blues music and contributed
to him being titled "Father of the Blues."
- Geographical areas involved in
presenting ________________ were the places where many ragtime musicians gained
their national reputations even before Tin Pan Alley assigned the label ragtime
to the music.
- ________________ (1896-1938) was
a composer of rags that display remarkable craftsmanship and consistency.
He met Scott Joplin in St. Louis in 1914. Joplin's influence undoubtedly enabled
him to have his compositions published soon after their meeting.
- ________________, "The Father
of Modern Bass" was a very popular performer during the swing era but remained
closer to tradition than some of his peers.
- ________________ - an improvisational
type of polyphony involving two voices embellishing the same melody either
slightly or elaborately. It is a type of polyphony used by many non-Western
- Jelly Roll Morton imposed a new
level of compositional discipline upon the vitality of the ________________
style of combo playing. Both of these trends would alter the direction of
"jazz" throughout America. Morton introduced the three to one ratio between
notes for rhythmic patterns (the quasi-12/8 feeling) and developed it in his
- ________________ was one of the
first to employ horn-like solos in his right hand technique.
- ________________ is a passionate
style of blues performed as faithfully as the "Negro" spiritual. Some people
claim it was derived from the sound of the steam locomotive. Others say it
evolved from a quickening of the blues development in the lower Mississippi
- ________________ was never a "cutesy
cooed" female, but has always been independent and forceful. Her unrestricted
genius and eclectic playing have made her style hard to pin down, much to
her critics' frustration or chagrin. Oscar Peterson refused to play on the
same bill with her if she used her trio.
- ________________ was the first
African American woman to make a record when her legendary vaudeville routine
with celebrity Bert Williams was produced in 1919.
- In all aspects of her professional
career - her voice, powerful bearing, timing, and ability to work with the
finest jazz musicians of her day - entitled ________________ to the description
the "Empress of the Blues".
- If the titles of his songs are
a reliable indication, ________________ was fond of women. The most important
woman in his life was his wife, Martha Promise, whom he married in 1935. His
songs were often personal or autobiographical.
- ________________ - (one part -
A) form where a song with the same music repeated to accompany the verses
- ________________ - the shape of
a melody. This shape can roughly indicate the directions of the notes, steps
and leaps, etc. graphically.
- In Fats Wallers ________________
(from Connies Hot Chocolates1929), a blues vocal melody
is supported by blues harmony that cleverly manages to avoid the tonic chord
(through the employment of parallel seventh chords most of the time).
- Although ________________ (b.
1903 and d. 1931) was always stuck performing with highly "commercial" ensembles,
he was one of the first European American soloists to develop a reputation
as an improviser in "jazz." Born in Davenport, he was a self-taught musician
who began piano lessons when he was five years old but was unable to learn
to read music.
- The set of recordings that ________________
made for the Library of Congress's Folklore Archives in 1938 is the most complete
and important oral document of the history of African American music on record,
yet the recording quality is embarrassingly poor.
- When Joe Oliver left the Ory-Oliver
jazz band to move to Chicago, ________________ was recommended for the cornet
spot in the best band in town.
- The pioneering ________________
was the first African American band to record frequently, and, consequently,
became an influential ensemble.
- All of ________________ professional
life was spent in Chicago, except for a few years in New York City, where
she worked as "house pianist" for Decca Recording studio from 1937 to 1940.
The superb bands she led from 1920 onward, were frequently booked extensively,
and she recorded many of her compositions (which numbered over 150) at sessions
for the Okeh, Paramount, Gennett, Columbia, Black and White, and Decca labels.
- ________________ (b. December
18, 1897 or 98, d. December 29, 1952) Was the first important African American
big band leader and arranger.
- In 1934 Irving Mills recognized
the commercial potential of presenting an all-woman swing band, and put up
the financial resources to back one. With the stability of the powerful Mills
organization as their sponsor________________ developed the most popular women's
band of the decade.
- ________________ led a band that
was well disciplined but more commercial than many of the other Middle-of-the-Road
big bands. Miller placed less emphasis upon the unrestained improvising of
his sidemen and more on arrangement and orchestration.
- ________________ was the son of
the conductor of the Denver Symphony Orchestra and a trained musician who
played with the San Francisco Symphony in 1914. He began styling himself as
presenting not mere dance music but performing symphonic jazz , a "new"
art form of which he was king.
- ________________ lead the first
significant assault on the legacy of trumpet as a jazz centerpiece and started
a transition to the saxophone (from the clarinet). His musical approach would
be echoed in the work of Johnny Hodges (a student), Willie Smith and Pete
B. Web Review Questions
- In African music natural frequency
stratification put ________________ on top of the drums.
- African music is often directly
associated with ________________ adding to the multidimensional effect of
- Captives from Africa in the "New
World" were allowed to develop ________________ because then they were more
productive when singing at work.
- During enslavement, ________________
became attached to communication amongst Africans in the Americas.
- Marching bands led to brass bands
and eventually instrumental Ragtime bands like that of ________________
(1881-1919) who made African American music popular overseas.
- It was not until 1920 that the
struggle to convince the European American music establishment to record an
African American female blues singer was successful. Okeh Records recorded
________________ (which artist?) ________________ (which piece?) and realized
a success so great that the label became a rival to the larger Paramount and
Columbia record industries.
- Blues vocalist Bessie Smith was
born in Chattanooga, Tennessee around 1895 and died in Clarksdale, Mississippi
in 1937. She went on the road while still in her teens as an apprentice to
________________ on the Theater Owners' Booking Association (TOBA) circuit.
- ________________ - music educator
who built a band based upon precision and discipline, who used a varied instrumentation
(temple blocks, timpani, celeste, etc.), emphasis on melodies with unpredictable
phrasing, and colorful solo devices (timbral contrasts, dynamic contrasts,
etc.) to create a style that moved in a direction different from that of Henderson's.
- ________________ - Leader of one
of the leading bands in the Midwest who trained Count Basie in the Kansas
Blues style that became the foundation his development in later years (after
taking over his band after his death). Developed a riff style (after Armstrong's
combo riff style) and later a tradition of trading fours, and other economical
devices. His band too was often poorly paid even when recording, but established
the swing feel that dominated the Big Band era. He also borrowed sophisticated
chord structures from popular songs.
- ________________ - Played for
silent films, accompanied Bessie Smith & Clara Smith and played with the
Blue Devils before becoming a band leader. Established a comping piano style
that would influence many generations of pianists. The bands renowned soloists
include Ben Webster, Coleman Hawkins, Lester Young, etc.
- ________________ - Became the
most celebrated jazz orchestra composer/leader in the world. Moved his very
steady bands (little turnover) through many developmental transformations
and took the jazz orchestra into symphonic directions while always maintaining
the tradition. Did not follow the riff style, but set new standards on almost
all levels of the big band phenomenon (soloists = bass in melodic role).
- ________________ - Drummer whose
style of driving a big band was second to none and who led one of the most
significant bands in Harlem. Got his big break when Duke Ellington got him
an opening at the Black Bottom Club. Found Ella Fitzgerald at the Apollo (amateur
night) and hired her on the spot.
- ________________ - Durations of
sound and the manners in which they are accented.
- ________________ - basic pulse
- ________________ - The regularly
recurring pattern of beats, or the organized units of time by which the time-span
of music is measured.
- ________________ involves the
alternation of a repeated pattern (A) with contrasting new melodies (BCD,
etc.) resulting is an ABACADA formal pattern.
C. Combined Lecture
& Text Questions
1. Pre-written and memorized passages
of music fail to qualify as jazz, by the strictest definition, because they
2. To improvise is to_________ and
3. Swing is a term that primarily
4. The technique of plucking
the strings of a musical instrument is termed:
5. Playing chords in a syncopated
way underneath a soloist is called:
6. Most jazz is guided by:
7. Which is true?
8. Stop-time solo breaks are
9. Ragtime might have been derived
from the term "ragging," which meant:
10. The African-American music
called the blues is thought most comprehensively to derive from:
11. Why is the party atmosphere
of New Orleans thought to have contributed significantly to the development
12. Early drummers were often
restricted to playing on the _________ because recording apparatus could not
handle loud percussion sounds.
13. The ___________ was far more
common than the _________ in early jazz groups.
14. Known especially for polish
and swing feeling was the big band of:
15. Which statement is false?
16. The first bandleader to organize
a highly effective African American musicians' union in New York near the turn
of the present century was:
17. All of the following are
characteristics of African music, except:
18. The terms "membranophones", "chordophones",
"idiophones", etc. denote
19. The opera by Scott Joplin, of
which excerpts were shown in class, is named ________________.
20. In the film Harlem Hellfighters,
it is shown that James Reese Europe's band ________________ .
21. The recording of ________________
playing Maple Leaf Rag is an example of freedom with form and interpretation,
whereas the piano roll recording adheres more closely to the written sheet music.
22. A scientific ________________
serves as the formalized framework which guides the assessment and evaluation
of reality. It is, therefore, a perceptual, cognitive and affective achievement
representing the organizational process for understanding. It is the singular
screen through which all understanding is filtered.
23. ________________ is a process
whereby the "cultural substance" of one group of people is utilized
to give "meaning" to the cultural manifestation of another group of
24. A peoples ________________
is their picture of the way things in sheer actuality are, their concept of
nature, of self, of society. It contains their most comprehensive ideas of order.
25. A peoples ________________
is the tone, character, and quality of their life, its moral and aesthetic style
and mode. It emerges as a set of guiding principles which define the underlying
attitude they have towards themselves and their world.
26. ________________ studies aim
to understand the unique and the non-recurrent.
27. ________________ is a component
of the cultural factor which pertains to a peoples assumptions or beliefs
about the origin and the structure of reality (universe).
D. Film Questions
80E Students: you are only responsible for answers to questions about films
we have viewed in class by the date of the exam, October 25, 2002.
1. In the film Jazz
On A Summer's Day the last clip features ________________ singing a spiritual.
2. After singing Sweet Georgia
Brown Anita O'Day (the woman with the decorative hat) demonstrates an exemplary
performance of ________________. (Jazz On A Summer's Day)
3. In the film Jazz On A Summer's
Day the camera shifts from the performers to the scenery and the sailboats
during whose piano solo? Answer: ________________
4. In the film Jazz Women
________________ is shown performing Woman's No Fool with a piano player
whose identity remains unknown, because he is only shown from behind.
5. In the film Jazz Women
Billy Holiday performs Now Baby or Never and God Bless the Child
with Count Basie accompanying her.
6. In the film clip showing ________________
Rita Rio gives a stunning tap dance performance with high heels while simultaneously
conducting the ensemble.
7. Black piano players in speakeasies
and saloons invented ragtime out of a combination of which elements?
8. Most European Americans in the
north did not live with African Americans as in the south and got their conceptions
from traveling shows. The most popular minstrels were performing when?
9. ________________ from Florence
Alabama is known as the "Father of the Blues".
of Global African Music