Living Encyclopedia of Global African Music


Vol. 1 | Vol. 2 | Vol. 3 | Vol. 4

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Volume 1

  1. [ #] Prologue [KEH-aaa]
  2. [P] Prologue [KEH-aaa]

The Afrocentric Origins of "Jazz"

Eurocentric Documentation and Control of African-American Music

The Impact of Sexism and Racism



I. Traditional African Music

  1. [ #] Chapter 1 [KEH-aaa] (PDF File)
  2. [#] Map: Countries of Africa
  3. [#] Map: Languages of Africa
  4. [w] Links to Maps of Africa

Formulating An Approach To Understanding African Music

Africa Before the European Slave Trade

Early African Contact With Europe

Women, Music, And Religion In Africa

Stylistic Regions of African Music

  1. [#] Map: Stylistic Regions of African Music [KEH-aaa]

I. Northern Africa

GO TO: Image Gallery: Instruments of Northern Africa [RHF-aaa]

  1. [P] Northern Africa [KEH-aaa]

Stylistic Regions of Sub-Saharan African Music

II. Eastern Cattle Area

  1. [P] Eastern Cattle Area [KEH-aaa]
  2. [P] Eastern Cattle Area [80q-03s]

III. Congo Area

  1. [P] Congo Area [KEH-aaa]

IV. Guinea Coast Area

  1. [P] Guinea Coast Area [KEH-aaa]
  2. [P] Guinea Coast Area [80q-03s]

V. Khoisan Area

  1. [P] Khoisan Area [KEH-aaa]
  2. [P] Khoisan Area [80q-03s]

VI. Sudan

  1. [P] Sudan Area [KEH-aaa]

The Function Of African Music In African Culture

An Overview Of Musical Style

Characteristics Of African Music

Musical Instruments

  1. [*] Image Gallery: Instruments of Africa (Part 1 of 2) [KEH-aaa]
  2. [*] Image Gallery: Instruments of Africa (Part 2 of 2) [KEH-aaa]
  3. [*] Image Gallery: Instruments of Africa [RHF-aaa]
  4. [*] Image Gallery: Instruments of Northern Africa [RHF-aaa]

Structures of African Rhythms

Classes of African Musicians

European Methods Of Examining African Culture


A Survey of African Kingdoms


II. The Sociocultural Context In Which African-American Music Emerged

  1. [P] The Sociocultural Context in Which African-American Music Emerged [KEH-aaa]

The Natives Of America

Africans’ Limited Access To Musical Instruments and Performance Venues In America

Slave Era Music And Cultural Cross-Fertilization

  1. [*] Image Gallery: Instruments of the Americas [RHF-aaa]

African-American Music Convergence Affected By Sex And Marriage

Sociocultural Influences On Seventeenth Century African-American Music

Eighteenth-Century Sociocultural Changes

Witch Craze


III. Traditional African-American Music

  1. [P] Traditional African-American Music [KEH-aaa]

Music Evolves During The Struggle For Independence And Equal Rights

American Folksongs And The Blues: Pre-Civil War

The Cakewalk And Children’s Game Songs

American Folksongs And The Blues: Post-Civil War


Minstrel Shows

The Dawn Of Ragtime

The Term "Jazz"

GO TO: Contemporary Politics and Labeling in African-American Culture

  1. [A] Hesterian Analysis of African American "Jazz" [KEH-aaa]
  2. [@] Speaking on/of Bebop [Mar01]

Musical Influence On Religion, Racism, and Revolution

Jim Crow Segregation Perpetuates Segregated Musical Styles



IV. Innovators Emerging Between 1900 And 1910

Ecumenical Music Retention

The Continuation of Double Entendre And Other Modes of Communication

Afrocentric Dance and Musical Cross-Fertilization

Early Blues

Gertrude "Ma" Rainey—"Mother Of The Blues"
William Christopher Handy—"Father Of The Blues"

From Vaudeville To Ragtime

Scott Joplin
James Scott
Thomas Million Turpin
James Reese Europe

New Orleans—Dixieland "Jazz" ("Traditional Jazz")

"Buddy" Bolden
William Gary "Bunk" Johnson
"Jelly Roll" Morton
"Papa" Celestin, "King" Oliver, And Freddie Keppard
Other New Orleans Instrumentalists

Turn-of-the-Century Women Musicians

New York—Tin Pan Alley

African Musical Influences In The Americas

The Evolution of The Drum Set
The Double Bass Evolution


Vol. 1 | Vol. 2 | Vol. 3 | Vol. 4

Volume 2

V.  Innovators Emerging Between 1910 and 1920

The Blues Continue to Evolve

Two Influential Rural Blues Musicians
Classic Blues
Bessie Smith

Ida Cox and Migrations to Northern Cities

Mamie Smith
Other Women Instrumentalists

Sidney Bechet and the Early Transition from Clarinet to Saxophone

Evolution of the Early Piano

Politics and the Twentieth-Century African-American Church on the Eve of the Harlem Renaissance


VI.  Innovators Emerging Between 1920 and 1930

Snapshots of American Society

The Effects of Changing American Demographics on Music

New Orleans and the Movement East

Swing and Its Precursors

Fats Waller
New York During the Harlem Renaissance

Chicago Dixieland

The Jelly Roll Morton Documentary

Louis "Satchmo" Armstrong and His Associates

Joe "King" Oliver
Lil Hardin Armstrong
Bix Beiderbecke

Big Bands and the Approaching Swing Era

African-American "Jazz" Bands
Commercial and Middle-of-the-Road Bands
Big Bands Swing

The Media Continues to Burgeon


VII.  Innovators Emerging Between 1930 and 1940

The New "Swing" Bands

Women's Bands during the Early Twentieth Century

Ina Ray Hutton and Her Melodears
International Sweethearts of Rhythm
Other Women's Bands

Emma Barett

Other Women Artists

Toward Greater Individual Expression

Art Tatum
Mary Lou Williams

The "Age of the Sax Masters" Coleman Hawkins and Lester Young

Coleman Hawkins
Lester Young

The Voice Continues to Be a Strong Influence

Billie Holiday
Ella Fitzgerald

Ellington's Afrocentricity and the European "Mirage"

The European Image of "Jazz"

European "Mirage" and "Jazz" Politics

Benny Goodman

Other African-American Dance Bands

A Glance at the Development of the Guitar in Early "Jazz"


VIII.  Innovators Emerging Between 1930 and 1940

Basic Blues and Early Precursors of Modern "Jazz"

Bebop Ties to Past and Present Cultures

Bebop Begins to Evolve

Progenitors of the Bebop Revolution
Charlie "Bird" Parker and "Black" Music Downtown

Misfortune, Drugs & Alcohol Imposes Upon The Bop Scene

Bop Brass Instrumentalists

Dizzy Gillespie
Melba Doretta Liston
Howard McGhee and Others

Bebop Pianists

Earl Powell
Thelonious Monk
Women Bop Pianists
Other Bop Era Pianists

Women Vocalists and Instrumentalists During the 1940s

Sarah Vaughan
Carmen McRae
Pauline Braddy (Williams)
Mary Osborne

"Progressive Jazz"



Vol. 1 | Vol. 2 | Vol. 3 | Vol. 4

Volume 3

IX.  Innovators Emerging Between 1950 and 1960

Continued Resistance to African-American Freedom


Miles Davis and "Cool Jazz"

Louis Jordan and Sonny Rollins

  1. [A] Louis Jordan at Eisenhower High School [KEH-aaa]
  2. [*] Image Gallery - Louis Jordan at Eisenhower High School [KEH-aaa]

John Coltrane and Other New Approaches to Spontaneous Composition

  1. [A] John Coltrane - The Formative Years and First Period [KEH-aaa]

Ornette Coleman

Cecil Taylor

Sun Ra

Charles Mingus

Two "Jazz" Harpists in the 1950s

Dorothy Ashby
Corky Hale

Art Blakey

Phineas Newborn



X.  Innovators Emerging Between 1960 and 1970

Evolution of Innovative Music for 1960s Audiences

Restructuring Musical Approaches

Artistic Expression or Entertainment?

Betty Carter

Alice Coltrane

Eric Dolphy and the "Jazz" Critics

Albert Ayler

The Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians

The Emergence of the Art Ensemble of Chicago

Dewey Redman, Art Davis, and the New York Scene

Amina Claudine Myers

Pharaoh Sanders

Archie Shepp

Joanne Brackeen

Charles Tolliver

Toshiko Akiyoshi

"Traditional Jazz" Continues

1960s Music Outside African-American Culture

Summary: The American Society That 1960s Music Reflected


XI.  Innovators Emerging Between 1970 and 1980

Changes around the World

Spiritual "Jazz" and New Musical Settings

Changing Attitudes in Europe

Connecting Fusion, Miles Davis, and Jimi Hendrix

Jazz-Funk Fusion
Jazz-Rock Fusion
Donald Byrd

  1. [*] Image Gallery: Dr. Donald Byrd at Cornell University [KEH-aaa]
  2. [!] Lecture/Demonstration: Dr. Donald Byrd - "Math is Music is Art Symedicity: A Theory of Music"

The Crossroads of Stylistic Evolution

More Conceptual Expansion

Charles Mingus Reemerges during the 1970s
Anthony Braxton
The World Saxophone Quartet
Joe Henderson

  1. [A] Joe Henderson - obit [KEH-aaa]

McCoy Tyner

Instrumental Style Continues to Evolve

The Evolution of the Flute

  1. [A] Buddy Collette at Eisenhower High School [KEH-aaa]
  2. [*] Image Gallery: Buddy Collette at Eisenhower High School [KEH-aaa]

Other Instrumental Evolutions

GO TO: The Evolution of the Drum Set
GO TO: The Double Bass Evolution
  1. [A] The Evolution of the Jazz Piano [HIG-aaa]
  2. [A] The Trombetto from the Ghetto [NEH-aaa]
  3. [*] Image Gallery: The Trombetto [NEH-aaa]

Classical-Jazz Fusion and Other New Approaches

Santeria and Musical Freedom

A Historical Summary

  1. [A] Echoes of a Culture [NEH-aaa]
  2. [*] Image Gallery: Echoes of a Culture [NEH-aaa]


XII.  Innovators Emerging Between 1980 and 2000

African-American Music in the American Marketplace

  1. [!] Panel Discussion: A Holistic Approach to the Ownership of African-American Music (Charles Tolliver, Randy Weston, Makanda McIntyre, Benny Powell, a.o.)

Emphasis Moves from Innovations to Youthful Image

Families of Musicians

The Age of the Freelance Musician

  1. [!] Interview: Dr. Nelson E. Harrison on Oral Tradition

Snapshot: Bay Area "Jazz" in the Early 1980s

The Contemporary Midwestern "Jazz" Scene

  1. [!] Interview: Pamela Wise
  2. [!] Panel Summary: Pamela Wise, Akua Dixon & Adela Dalto

Rap and Hip-Hop Culture

  1. [A] The New School Hip Hop Revolution [JKR-aaaa]

Contemporary Politics & Labeling African-American Culture

GO TO: The Term "Jazz"

  1. [!] Panel Presentation: Dr. Billy Taylor, Dr. Donald Byrd, a.o.
  2. [A] Elektrokineticmusicim [KEH-aaa]
  3. [A] Mo' Better Reviews [KEH-aaa]
  4. [w] Jazz - Designation as an American National Treasure (HCR 57, 101 STAT. 2013)

Summary: Afrocentric Snapshots of a Shrinking Society

The African World


Vol. 1 | Vol. 2 | Vol. 3 | Vol. 4

Volume 4

A. Appendices 1-12

Appendix 1

Nubian Chronology
Chronology of Egyption Civilization
Notes to Remember (African Musical Elements)
Suggested Listening (African Music)

Appendix 2

Simple Definitions (Chapter 2)

Appendix 3

Short Definitions (Chapter 3)
Statistics Compiled for Free "Negro" Men from Two Communities in the Antebellum South

Appendix 4

Terms and Concepts (Chapter 4)

  1. [o] Definitions of Conceptual Terms [KEH-aaa]

Appendix 5

The Symbols of Music

Musical Instruments

  1. [#] Musical Instruments [KEH-aaa]

Images of Instruments used in "jazz" and forms of western music:

  1. [*] Image Gallery: Woodwind Instruments [KEH-aaa]
  2. [*] Image Gallery: Brass Instruments [KEH-aaa]
  3. [*] Image Gallery: Percussion Instruments [KEH-aaa]
  4. [*] Image Gallery: String and Keyboard Instruments [KEH-aaa]

    Images of Instruments used in African music:

    GO TO: Musical Instruments (African)

Terms and Concepts (Chapter 5)

Additional Notes and Definitions

Appendix 6

Oppression and Violence Continues in America
The Film Industry Emerges to Rival Music

Appendix 7

World News during the 1930s

Some Important Early Swing Band Performers

Women Swing Bands and Instrumentalists

  1. [A] African American Women Create Music [KEH-aaa]

Appendix 8

Appendix 9

Appendix 10

Appendix 11

Appendix 12


B. Resources

Biography Archive

A - Z Index

Discography Archive

  1. [o] List of Recordings for History of "Jazz" [KEH-aaa]

Instrument Index

  1. Percussionists
  2. Vocalists
  3. Pianists
  4. Blues
  5. String Players
  6. The Bands and Collections
  7. Trumpet Players
  8. Saxophonists
  9. John Coltrane
  10. Clarinet/Flute/Harmonica/Organ/Trombone/etc.

Album Reviews (by Recording Artist)

  1. [w] Karlton Hester and Hesterian Musicism

Bibliography Archive

Subject Index
Book Reviews (by Book Author)

"Jazz" and Improvisatory Theory

Class Materials: African Music

Music 80Q: Survey of African Music (Spring 2003)

GO TO: FAAISCJ Chapter 1
GO TO: Musical Instruments (African)
GO TO: Musical Instruments ("Jazz" and Western music)

  1. [w] Online Course Listening
  2. [w] Images of African Musical Instruments

    Final Review

  3. [o] Africa: Musical Instruments
  4. [o] Africa: Languages and Instruments
  5. [o] Africa: Kingdoms
  6. [o] Africa: Music of Protest Films
  7. [o] Africa: Tribal Groups
  8. [o] Africa: Cross-Fertilization

    Class Presentations

  9. GO TO: Eastern Cattle Area
  10. GO TO: Guinea Coast Area

Class Materials: History of "Jazz"

Music 80E: History of "Jazz" (Fall 2002)

GO TO: Musical Instruments
GO TO: [o] Definitions of Conceptual Terms
GO TO: Film Questions

GO TO: List of Recordings for History of "Jazz" [KEH-aaa]

  1. [o] Class Memos
  2. [o] Syllabus (Fall Quarter 2002)
  3. [w] Online Course Listening
  4. [o] Class Groups Lists
  5. [o] Listening Selections for Quiz 1
  6. [o] Listening Selections for Quiz 3
  7. [w] Images of African Musical Instruments
  8. [w] McHenry Library Electronic Reserves
  9. [o] Study Guide (a historic outline)
  10. [o] Practice Midterm

Final Exam Study Materials:

  1. [o] Practice Final
  2. [o] Lecture Notes: Big Bands and Swing Bands
  3. [o] Lecture Notes: Connections, Evolution, and Freedom
  4. [o] Lecture Notes: The 1950s - Cool, Hard Bop, etc.
  5. [o] Lecture Notes: Evolution from Ragtime to Other Instrumental and Vocal Forms
  6. [o] Lecture Notes: Innovators from 1800 to 2000
  7. [o] Lecture Notes: The Flexible Nature of Evolutionary Jazz - An Introduction to Some Innovators of Modern Jazz

Class Materials: Improvisatory Theory

Teaching Resources


  1. [o] Mulitcultural Music Educational Program [NEH-aaa]

Syllabi and Lesson Plans

  1. [o] Syllabi: History of "Jazz" [KEH-aaa]

Classroom Materials

  1. [#] Listening Grid [KEH-aaa]
  2. [#] Writing Grid [KEH-aaa]

    Film Questions:

  3. [o] Film Questions: Films on African Music [KEH-aaa]
  4. [o] Film Questions: Jazz Women on Video, and The Duke Ellington Orchestra [KEH-aaa]
  5. [o] Film Questions: Mary Lou Williams: Music on My Minf [KEH-aaa]
  6. [o] Film Questions: Thelonious Monk - American Composer [KEH-aaa]
  7. [o] Film Questions: Celebrating Bird [KEH-aaa]
  8. [o] Film Questions: Coltrane Legacy [KEH-aaaa]

    Sample Exams:

  9. [o] History of "Jazz:" Practice Midterm 01 [KEH-aaa]
  10. [o] History of "Jazz:" Practice Final 01 [KEH-aaa]

Research Resources

Index of Images


Vol. 1 | Vol. 2 | Vol. 3 | Vol. 4

News on Global African Music

  1. Current
  2. September 2002
  3. AAI Newsletter Archive

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